Solubility is defined as a chemical property referring to the ability of a given substance, the solute, to dissolve into a solvent. It is measured in terms of the maximum amount of solute dissolved in a solvent at equilibrium. The resulting solution is called a saturated solution.
Cannabinoids and pesticides are normally the main focus of native and foreign chemical constituents found in cannabis. However, terpenes deserve their fair-share of the spotlight. Terpenes and their related terpenoids are the primary compounds in most botanicals and essential oils. Many consumer products rely on terpenes for their character, flavor and fragrances, making them ideal for foods and aromatherapy alike. For example, Myrcene, beta-Pinene, beta-Caryophyllene and alpha-Humulene are found in hops and important to the flavor and aroma of beer. Damascene and Geraniol provide the floral notes of wine grapes and roses.
Terpenes are of interest for both recreational and medical cannabis fields. Researchers are able to characterize different cannabis strains based on their terpene profiles. Terpene profiles allow recreational users to identify which flavors and fragrances they prefer. More importantly, research recognizes terpenes also have therapeutic benefits. For example, beta-Myrcene and Nerolidol are mild sedatives and Limonene an anti-inflammatory, each providing key therapeutic benefits. Some research also suggests terpenes work synergistically with themselves and other native compounds to enhance therapeutic effects, similar to the cannabinoid “Entourage Effect”.
As the industry evolves, the need for more accurate and precise analytical methods and standards will continue to grow. SPEX CertiPrep is proud to be at the forefront of the industry, continuously adapting our standards to comply with changing regulations and increasing consumer demand for safer products.
Premixed Pesticide Multi-Compound CRMs
Chemical pesticides have become an integral part of the agricultural toolbox, offering protection to crops from destructive pests. However, an unfortunate side effect of their uses is the potential leaching of these, oftentimes, harmful chemicals into the environment leading to their eventual presence in the human food chain. As a result, pesticide residue analysis has become a critical testing process for many different types of laboratories.
Unfortunately, pesticide residue testing is a long, expensive, and complicated process, covering hundreds of different compounds. Fortunately, as the leader in HPLC, GC, LC/MS, and GC/MS pesticide CRMs, SPEX CertiPrep is happy to assist our customers with all of your pesticide CRM needs.
For your convenience, we have designed a pesticide residue testing kit which includes 144 of the most commonly analyzed pesticides per EPA, AOAC, FDA and other international testing methods. The kit is structured to maximize stability and solubility, while minimizing unwanted analyte interaction and interference; enjoy shorter calibration times, fewer injections and money savings, as compared to purchasing individual pesticide standards.
For additional product information, please visit www.spexcertiprep.com/products/pesticides/pesticide-mixes.
Our sodium thiosulfate solutions are prepared from ACS Grade, micro-crystalline Na2S2O3. In order to maximize shelf life, our matrix is prepared using double-deionized, ASTM Type 1 Water.
Our iodine solutions are prepared from ACS Grade potassium iodide and crystalline elemental iodine. To guarantee a clean and stable product, our matrix is prepared using double-deionized, ASTM Type I Water.
All solutions are prepared gravimetrically, using high accuracy analytical balances, to ensure precise target concentrations. Each batch is thoroughly homogenized using a high speed industrial mixer to ensure reliable results from the first bottle to the last.
We are titrating our samples on our automated titrator. The automated dosing drive uses 10,000 steps over it 20 mL volume, so its dosing increment can be as small as 2 μL. For these applications, we are using a minimum dose of 10 μL for the sodium thiosulfate endpoint and 4 μL for the iodine endpoint. These settings achieve the extremely precise measurements for each titration while also staying within the parameters of the dosing unit.
As stated on our Certificate of Analysis, the sodium thiosulfate is run against a 0.1 N potassium dichromate solution. The exact normality of this solution is calculated by comparing it to NIST potassium dichromate. A set of 6 samples are run that must all be within the nominal value of 0.0394 N ± 0.00008 N.
Then the certified sodium thiosulfate is used to titrate iodine. A set of 3 samples are run that must all be within the nominal value of 0.0473 N ± 0.00003 N.
Before releasing either of these reagents for packaging, we run QC checks with a previous lot to ensure accuracy over time.
SPEX CertiPrep Proudly Supports Breast Cancer Research and Awareness
Breast cancer awareness is an effort to raise awareness and reduce the stigma of breast cancer through education on symptoms and treatment. At SPEX CertiPrep we support the hope that greater knowledge will lead to earlier detection of breast cancer, which is associated with higher long-term survival rates, and that money raised for breast cancer will produce a reliable, permanent cure.
Donte to the cure!
SPEX CertiPrep will match 10% of the total donations
SPEX CertiPrep is Dressing in Pink!
Awareness needs to be ongoing. In addition to matching donations, SPEX CertiPrep is showing our support for Breast Cancer Research and Awareness in the following ways:
- We’ve painted our website pink
- Our products are dressed in pink – pink support ribbon stickers will be placed on bottle tops
- Our employees will be wearing pink silicone bracelets
- Our management team will be wearing pink lab coats
- All web orders will receive a FREE pink vial rack
Laboratory testing is often thought of, in popular culture, as a simple and straightforward process. The popularity of crime dramas like CSI has proliferated the idea that sample testing simply involves adding a pinch of a sample to a machine and, with the press of a button, out pops an answer! We are sure many analysts wish it was just that easy!
While it is true that with the evolution of analytical instrumentation it is now possible to see a greater variety of compounds at very low concentrations, the reality of analytical testing and laboratory processes is often far from a one button answer. More often than not, laboratories are challenged with highly regulated and difficult sample preparation, extraction and testing procedures, covering a wide variety of sample types – ranging from agricultural to zoological specimens and beyond. And now, at SPEX, we count ourselves very lucky to have a front row seat to witness the birth, growth and regulation of a brand new industry around a brand new sample type.
By legalizing marijuana, recent legislation has opened up a new agricultural and testing industry around Cannabis. However, its federal status as a Class I drug has prevented federal regulating bodies from issuing recommendations and testing methods, leaving local testing laboratories at the forefront of testing regulation and legislation. The science and state regulatory communities are now working together to define the roles and targets for testing in this new industry, as well as, redefine global strategies for testing harmonization worldwide.
Below, we will take a look at a range of testing questions; from new analytical fields to well established industries which are being more tightly controlled and refined. This issue will examine new research being conducted in the analytical field, and take a fresh look at some well explored areas that are gaining new attention in the research world.
EVOLUTION OF PESTICIDES
Human history is a tale of mankind trying to control their environment. One of the earliest attempts to master the environment was the control of food which led to the agricultural revolution. The rise of the agricultural controls increased the threat of the loss of livestock, harvests and livelihood through predation, pests and disease.
From ancient primitive methods, to more complex applications of farming techniques and tools, early pest controls evolved over the centuries at a slow pace. The Renaissance and following centuries saw the dawn of the age of scientific pursuits, which would eventually grow into all of our modern scientific disciplines.
In this issue of SPEXSpeaker, we look at the history and development of pest controls and pesticides from the earliest recorded uses of pesticides to the dawn of the industrial and chemical revolution. This issue will also follow the changes over the past 80 years of our modern age of chemical pesticides which was jump started with a bang after World War II and continues to evolve into new and complex forms of pest controls from organic farming to genetically modified organisms.